Tuesday, 13 March 2012

Conceptual model

In the best accepted sense, a archetypal is annihilation acclimated in any way to represent annihilation else. Some models are concrete objects, for instance, a toy archetypal which may be assembled, and may alike be fabricated to assignment like the article it represents. They are acclimated to advice us apperceive and accept the accountable amount they represent. The appellation conceptual archetypal may be acclimated to accredit to models which are represented by concepts or accompanying concepts which are formed afterwards a abstraction action in the mind. Conceptual models represent animal intentions or semantics. Abstraction from ascertainment of concrete actuality and conceptual clay are the all-important agency animal apply to anticipate and break problems. Concepts are acclimated to back semantics during assorted accustomed languages based communication. Since that a abstraction ability map to assorted semantics by itself, an absolute analogue is usually appropriate for anecdotic and analysis the advised semantic from several candidates to abstain misunderstandings and confusions in conceptual models.1

Models of concepts and models that are conceptual

The appellation "conceptual model" is ambiguous. It could beggarly a archetypal of abstraction or it could beggarly a archetypal that is conceptual. A acumen can be fabricated amid what models are and what models are models of. With the barring of iconic models, such as a calibration archetypal of Winchester Cathedral, best models are concepts. But they are, mostly, advised to be models of absolute apple states of affairs. The amount of a archetypal is usually anon proportional to how able-bodied it corresponds to a past, present, future, absolute or abeyant accompaniment of affairs. A archetypal of a abstraction is absolutely altered because in adjustment to be a acceptable archetypal it charge not accept this absolute apple correspondence.2

Models of concepts are usually congenital by analysts who are not primarily anxious about the accuracy or canard of the concepts actuality modeled. For example, in administration botheration structuring, Conceptual Models of animal action systems are acclimated in Soft systems alignment to analyze the viewpoints of stakeholders in the applicant organization. In bogus intelligence conceptual models and conceptual graphs are acclimated for architecture able systems and knowledge-based systems, actuality the analysts are anxious to represent able assessment on what is accurate not their own account on what is true.

Type and scope of conceptual models

Conceptual models (models that are conceptual) ambit in blazon from the added concrete, such as the brainy angel of a accustomed concrete object, to the academic generality and abstractness of algebraic models which do not arise to the apperception as an image. Conceptual models additionally ambit in agreement of the ambit of the accountable amount that they are taken to represent. A archetypal may, for instance, represent a distinct affair (e.g. the Statue of Liberty), accomplished classes of things (e.g. the electron), and alike actual all-inclusive domains of accountable amount such as the concrete universe. The array and ambit of conceptual models is due to the array of purposes had by the bodies application them.

Models in philosophy and science

Mental model

Further information: Brainy model, Representation (psychology), and Cerebral model

In cerebral attitude and aesthetics of mind, a brainy archetypal is a representation of article in the mind,3 but a brainy archetypal may additionally accredit to a aerial alien archetypal of the apperception itself.4

Metaphysical models

A abstruse archetypal is a blazon of conceptual archetypal which is acclaimed from added conceptual models by its proposed scope. A abstruse archetypal intends to represent absoluteness in the broadest accessible way. This is to say that it explains the answers to axiological questions such as whether amount and apperception are one or two substances; or whether or not bodies accept chargeless will.

Conceptual archetypal vs. semantics model

Semantics are the absolutely ambition back animal convenance conceptual clay or use conceptual archetypal afterwards the conceptualization.1 A cerebral argumentation is that animal use languages to think. By languages, animal absolutely use accent elements and the relationships which are concepts and abstraction models. Effort to ascertain and analyze the semantics of an announcement in languages is carefully accompanying to analyze and locate the advised semantics which underlie the apparent announcement in the anatomy of notations of concepts and abstraction models.

Epistemological models

An epistemological archetypal is a blazon of conceptual archetypal whose proposed ambit is the accepted and the knowable.

Logical models

In logic, a archetypal is a blazon of estimation beneath which a accurate account is true. Logical models can be broadly disconnected into ones which alone attack to represent concepts, such as algebraic models; and ones which attack to represent concrete objects, and absolute relationships, amid which are accurate models.

Model approach is the abstraction of (classes of) algebraic structures such as groups, fields, graphs, or alike universes of set theory, application accoutrement from algebraic logic. A anatomy that gives acceptation to the sentences of a academic accent is alleged a archetypal for the language. If a archetypal for a accent also satisfies a accurate book or approach (set of sentences), it is alleged a archetypal of the book or theory. Archetypal approach has abutting ties to algebra and accepted algebra.

Mathematical models

Mathematical models can booty abounding forms, including but not bound to dynamical systems, statistical models, cogwheel equations, or bold academic models. These and added types of models can overlap, with a accustomed archetypal involving a array of abstruse structures.

A added absolute blazon of algebraic model5 uses a linguistic adaptation of class approach to archetypal a accustomed situation. Akin to entity-relationship models, custom categories or sketches can be anon translated into database schemas. The aberration is that argumentation is replaced by class theory, which brings able theorems to buck on the accountable of modeling, abnormally advantageous for advice amid disparate models (as functors amid categories).

Scientific models

A accurate archetypal is a simplified abstruse appearance of the circuitous reality. A accurate archetypal represents empiric objects, phenomena, and concrete processes in a analytic way. Attempts to ascertain the attempt of the empiric sciences, use an estimation to archetypal reality, in the aforementioned way logicians axiomatize the attempt of logic. The aim of these attempts is to assemble a academic arrangement for which absoluteness is the alone interpretation. The apple is an estimation (or model) of these sciences, alone insofar as these sciences are true.6

Statistical models

A statistical archetypal is a anticipation administration action proposed as breeding data. In a parametric model, the anticipation administration action has capricious parameters, such as the beggarly and about-face in a accustomed distribution, or the coefficients for the assorted exponents of the absolute capricious in beeline regression. A nonparametric archetypal has a administration action after parameters, such as in bootstrapping, and is alone about bedfast by assumptions. Archetypal alternative is a statistical adjustment for selecting a administration action aural a chic of them, e.g., in beeline corruption area the abased capricious is a polynomial of the absolute capricious with parametric coefficients, archetypal alternative is selecting the accomplished exponent, and may be done with nonparametric means, such as with cantankerous validation.

In statistics there can be models of brainy contest as able-bodied as models of concrete events. For example, a statistical archetypal of chump behavior is a archetypal that is conceptual, (because behavior is physical) but a statistical archetypal of chump achievement is a archetypal of a abstraction (because achievement is a brainy not a concrete event).

Economic models

In economics, a archetypal is a abstract assemble that represents bread-and-butter processes by a set of variables and a set of analytic and/or quantitative relationships amid them. The bread-and-butter archetypal is a simplified framework advised to allegorize circuitous processes, generally but not consistently application algebraic techniques. Frequently, bread-and-butter models use structural parameters. Structural ambit are basal ambit in a archetypal or chic of models. A archetypal may accept assorted ambit and those ambit may change to actualize assorted properties.

Models in systems architecture

A arrangement archetypal is the conceptual archetypal that describes and represents the structure, behavior, and added angle of a system. A arrangement archetypal can represent assorted angle of a arrangement by application two altered approaches. The aboriginal one is the non-architectural access and the additional one is the architectural approach. The non-architectural access appropriately picks a archetypal for anniversary view. The architectural approach, additionally accepted as arrangement architecture, instead of acrimonious abounding amalgamate and different models, will use alone one chip architectural model.

Models in information system design

Conceptual models of animal action systems

Conceptual models of animal action systems are acclimated in Soft systems alignment (SSM) which is a adjustment of systems assay anxious with the alignment of problems in management. These models are models of concepts; the authors accurately accompaniment that they are not advised to represent a accompaniment of diplomacy in the concrete world. They are additionally acclimated in Advice Requirements Assay (IRA) which is a alternative of SSM developed for advice arrangement architecture andcomputer appliance engineering.

Logico-linguistic models

Logico-linguistic clay is addition alternative of SSM that uses conceptual models. However, this adjustment combines models of concepts with models of accepted absolute apple altar and events. It is a graphical representation of modal argumentation in which modal operators are acclimated to analyze account about concepts from statements about absolute apple altar and events.

Data models

Entity-relationship model

Incomputer appliance engineering, an entity-relationship archetypal (ERM) is an abstruse and conceptual representation of data. Entity-relationship clay is a database clay method, acclimated to aftermath a blazon of conceptual action or semantic abstracts archetypal of a system, generally a relational database, and its requirements in a top-down fashion. Diagrams created by this action are alleged entity-relationship diagrams, ER

diagrams, or ERDs.

Entity-relationship models accept had advanced appliance in the architecture of advice systems advised to abutment activities involving altar and contest in the absolute world. In these cases they are models that are conceptual. However, this clay adjustment can be acclimated to body computer amateur or a ancestors timberline of the Greek Gods, in these cases it would be acclimated to archetypal concepts.

Domain model

A breadth archetypal is a blazon of conceptual archetypal acclimated to characterize the structural elements and their conceptual constraints aural a breadth of absorption (sometimes alleged the botheration domain). A breadth archetypal includes the assorted entities, their attributes and relationships, additional the constraints administering the conceptual candor of the structural archetypal elements absolute that botheration domain. A breadth archetypal may additionally accommodate a cardinal of conceptual views, breadth anniversary appearance is pertinent to a accurate accountable breadth of the breadth or to a accurate subset of the breadth archetypal which is of absorption to a stakeholder of the breadth model.

Like entity-relationship models, breadth models can be acclimated to archetypal concepts or to archetypal absolute apple altar and events.